Monday, January 7, 2013

Long list of African Youth Language references

Heye all,

To get the New Year off to a productive start, here's a list of useful references for Tsotsitaal and other African Youth Language varieties.

Appel, R. & Muysken, P. 1987. Language contact and bilingualism. London: Edward Arnold.

Aycard, Pierre (2007). Speak as you want to speak: just be free!, a linguistic-anthropological monograph of first-language Iscamtho-speaking youth in White City, Soweto. Thesis (MA), University of Leiden.

Bauman, Richard and Charles L. Briggs. 1990. “Poetics and Performance as Critical Perspectives on Language and Social Life.” Annual Review of Anthropology 19:59-88.

Beck, Rose Marie (2011). Urban Languages in Africa, in: Africa Spectrum, 45, 3, 11-41.

Bembe, Princess (2006). The use of slang among black youth in Gauteng. Thesis (MA), University of Johannesburg.

Bembe, Princess & Anne-Marie Beukes (2007). The use of slang by black youth in Gauteng. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 25(4):463–472.

Blommaert, Jan (2010) The Sociolinguistics of Globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Blommaert, Jan and Ben Rampton (2011) Language and Superdiversity: a position paper. Working Papers in Urban Language & Literacies, Paper 70. [Online] Accessed: [28 Sept 2011)

Botsotso Poetry Archive (2008-2010). [Online] Accessed: [2011, 04/06]

Brook, Karolina (2010). Interactions of South African languages: Case study of Tsotsitaal. Conference paper presented at Global Wordnet Conference, Mumbai, India. [Online] Accessed: [2011, 04/06].

Brookes, Heather 2004. A repertoire of South African quotable gestures. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 14(2) 186-224.

Butler, Judith (1990). Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory. In Sue-Ellen Case (ed.) Performing Feminisms: Feminist Critical Theory and Theatre, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 270-282,

Calteaux, Karen, 1994. A sociolinguistic analysis of a multilingual community. Thesis (PhD). Rand Afrikaans University.

Calteaux, Karen. 1996. Standard and non-standard African language varieties in the urban areas of South Africa: Main report for the STANON research programme. Pretoria: HSRC Publishers.

Childs, G. Tucker (1997) The Status of Isicamtho, an Nguni-Based Urban Variety of Soweto. In Arthur Spears & Donald Winford (eds.) The Structure and Status of Pidgins and Creoles. Amsterdam, Benjamins, 341-367.

Cook, S. E. 2009. Street Setswana vs. School Setswana: Language Policies and the Forging of Identities in South African classrooms. In J. A. Kleifgen and G. C. Bond (eds) The Languages of Africa and the Diaspora: Educating for Language Awareness, 96- 116. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Coupland, Nikolas (2007) Style: language variation and identity. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Crystal, David (2003) English as a global language. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Dabène, Louise & Moore, Danièle. 1995. Bilingual speech of migrant people. In Lesley Milroy & Pieter Muysken (eds.), One speaker, two languages: Cross-disciplinary perspectives in code switching, 17-44. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

De Féral, Carole (2007) Ce que parler camfranglais n’est pas: de quelques problèmes posés par la description d’un “parler jeune”. In: M. Auzanneau (ed.): Langues, cultures et interaction. Paris: L’Harmattan, 259-276.

De Klerk, Vivian. 1995. Slang in South African English. In Rajend Mesthrie (ed.), Language and social history: Studies in South African sociolinguistics, 265-276. Cape Town: David Philip.

De Klerk, Vivian (2006). Codeswitching, Borrowing and Mixing in a Corpus of Xhosa English. The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 9(5):597‐614.

Deumert, Ana, Hurst, Ellen, Masinyana, Oscar & Mesthrie, Raj (2006). Urbanisation and Language Change – Evidence from Cape Town; Logical Connectors and Discourse Markers in Urban Xhosa. Conference paper presented at LSSA/SAALA: Durban, South Africa.

Deumert, Ana and Masinyana, S.Oscar., 2008. Mobile language choices — The use of English and isiXhosa in text messages (SMS): Evidence from a bilingual South African sample. English World-Wide 29(2), 117–147

Doke, Clement Martyn & Vilakazi, Benedict Wallet. 1972. Zulu-English Dictionary. 2nd ed. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.

Dorleijn, M., Mous, M. & Nortier, J. Forthcoming. Urban Youth Linguistic Practices in Europe and Africa. In [TBC].

Dube, Matilda (1992). Language attitudes in Soweto - the place of the indigenous languages. Thesis (MA), Vista University.

Du Plessis, Jan Adriaan & Visser, Marianna. 1992. Xhosa syntax. Pretoria: Via Afrika.

Dyers, Charyln (2009) From ibharu to amajoin: translocation and language in a new South African township. Language and Intercultural Communication 9(4):256-270.

Eckert, Penelope (2000). Linguistic variation as social practice: the linguistic construction of identity in Belten High. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Epstein, Arnold L. (1959) Linguistic innovation and culture on the Copperbelt. In South western Journal of Anthropology 15(3):235-53.

Evans, Maurice S. 1916. Black and white in south east Africa: a study in sociology. 2nd ed. London: Longmans, Green & Co.

Fairclough, Norman. 2000. Language and power (2nd ed.). New York: Longman.

Ferguson, James (1959) Expectations of Modernity: Myths and Meaning of Urban Life on the Zambian Copperbelt. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Finlayson, Rosalie & Slabbert, Sarah. 1997. “We just mix” – code-switching in a South African township. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 125. 65-98.

Fischer, John L. (1958). Social Influences on the Choice of a Linguistic Variant. Word 14:47‐56.

Fraser, Bruce (1999). What are discourse markers? Journal of Pragmatics 31(7):931‐952.

Giles, Howard, Bourhis, Richard Y. & Taylor, Donald M. (1977). Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. In Howard Giles (ed.) Language ethnicity and intergroup relations. London, New York: Academic Press, 307‐348.

Githinji, Peter (2006) Bazes and their shibboleths: lexical variation and Sheng speakers’ identity in Nairobi. Nordic Journal of African Studies 15(4):443-472.

Githoria, Chege (2002) Sheng: peer language, Swahili dialect of emerging creols? Journal of African Cultural Studies. 15(2):159-181

Glaser, Clive (2000). Bo‐tsotsi: the youth gangs of Soweto, 1935‐1976. Oxford, Cape Town: Heinemann.

Globalis (2011) An interactive world map. Global Virtual University. [Online] Accessed at: [13th June 2011]

Halliday, Michael A.K. 1975. “Anti-languages.” American Anthropologist 78(3):570-584.

Halliday, Michael A.K. (1978). Language as social semiotic: the social interpretation of language and meaning. London: Edward Arnold.

Halliday, Michael A.K., McIntosh, Angus & Strevens, Peter D. (1964). The Linguistic Sciences and Language Teaching. London: Longmans.

Harris, Roxy & Ben Rampton (2002) Creole Metaphors in Cultural Analysis: on the limits and possibilities of (Socio) Linguistics. Critique of Anthropology 22(1):31-51.

Holm, John. 1989. Pidgin and creoles, Vol. 2: Reference survey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Huddleston, Trevor. 1956. Naught for your comfort. Johannesburg: Hardingham & Donaldson.

Hurst, Ellen, 2008. Style structure and function in Cape Town Tsotsitaal. Thesis (PhD). University of Cape Town.

Hurst, Ellen 2009. Tsotsitaal, global culture and local style: identity and recontextualisation in twenty-first century South African townships. Social Dynamics, 35:2,244 — 257

Hurst, E. Forthcoming. Language birth: youth/ town language. In R. Vossen (Ed.) The Oxford Handbook of African Languages. Oxford University Press.

Hurst, E. & Mesthrie, R. Forthcoming. ‘When you hang out with the guys they keep you in style’: the case for considering style in descriptions of South African tsotsitaals. Language Matters.

Kabinga, Moonde (2010) A comparative study of the morphosyntax and phonetics of Town Bemba and standard Bemba of the Copperbelt, Zambia. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Cape Town.

Kashoki, E. Mubanga (1972) Town Bemba: A sketch of its main Characteristics. African Social Research No. 13, June. Manchester University Press for Institute of African Studies.

Khumalo, Ntombifuthi. 1995. “The language contact situation in Daveyton.” MA thesis, Vista University.

Kiessling, Roland and Mous, Maarten, 2004. Urban youth languages in Africa. Anthropological Linguistics, 46 (3), 303–341.

Kioko, E. 2012. The “ethnic” registers of Sheng. Paper presented at the 20th Afrikanistentag, Cologne University 30th May-2nd June.

Kok, Pieter (2006) Migration in south and southern Africa: dynamics and determinants. Human Sciences Research Council. Integrated Rural and Regional Development Research Programme.

Kouadio, Jérémie N’guessan (2006) Le nouchi et les rapports dioula-français. Le français en Afrique 21(ROFCAN):177-191.

Kube-Barth, Sabine (2009) The multiple facets of the urban language form, Nouchi. In Fiona McLaughlin (ed.) The languages of Urban Africa. London: Continuum.

Kuzwayo, Muzi. 2007. There’s a Tsotsi in the Boardroom: Winning in a Hostile World. Johannesburg: Jacana Media.

Jakobsen, Roman (1960). Concluding statement: Linguistics and poetics. In Thomas A. Sebeok (ed.) Style in Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 350‐77.

Janson, Tore. 1984. A language of Sophiatown, Alexandra and Soweto. In Mark Sebba, & Loreto Todd (eds.), York Papers in Linguistics 11: Urban creoles, 167-179. York: University of York.

Joos, Martin (1967). The five clocks. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

Labov, William (1972). Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Labov, William (1972) Language in the Inner City: Studies in the Black English Vernacular. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Labov, William (1984). Field Methods of the Project in Linguistic Change and Variation. In John Baugh & Joel Sherzer (eds.) Language in use: Readings in Sociolinguistics, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice‐Hall, 28‐53.

Lee, David (1992). Competing discourses: perspective and ideology in language. London: Longman.

Lewis, M. Paul (ed.) (2009) Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. [Online] Accessed: [28 Sept 2011]

Linn, Michael D. (1973). Urban Black Speech as the Sixth Clock. Conference paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council of Teachers of English, Philadelphia, PA.

Madiba, Mbulungeni. 1994. A linguistic survey of adoptives in Venda. Pretoria: University of South Africa MA thesis.

Makhudu, K. Dennis Papi. 1980. An etymological and morpho-phonological description of Flaaitaal/ Tsotsitaal: a sociolinguistic perspective. Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand BA (Hons.) thesis.

Makhudu, K. Dennis Papi (1995). An introduction to Flaaitaal. In Raj Mesthrie (ed.) Language and social history: studies in South African sociolinguistics. Cape Town: David Philip, 298–305.

Makoni, Sinfree & Pennycook, Alistair (2005) Disinventing & (re)constituting languages. Critical Enquiry in Language Studies: An International Journal 2(3) 137-156.

Mazrui, Alamin (1995) Slang and code-switching: the case of Sheng in Kenya. AAP 42:168-179

McLaughlin, Fiona (ed.) (2009) The languages of Urban Africa. London: Continuum.

Mesthrie Raj (2002). Language in South Africa.

Mesthrie, Raj (2008). “I’ve been speaking Tsotsitaal all my life without knowing it”: towards a unified account of Tsotsitaals in South Africa. In Miriam Meyerhoff & Naomi Nagy (eds.) Social Lives in Language. New York: Benjamins, 95‐109.

Mesthrie, R. & Hurst, E. Forthcoming. “Slang, code-switching and restructured urban varieties in South Africa: an analytic overview of tsotsitaals with special reference to the Cape Town variety.” Journal of Pidgin & Creole Languages, 28(1).

Mfusi, Mmemezi Joseph Heracles. 1992. Soweto Zulu slang: a sociolinguistic study of an urban vernacular in Soweto. English Usage in Southern Africa 23(1). 39-83.

Milroy, Lesley (1980) Language and Social Networks. Oxford: Blackwell.

Mokwana, M. 2009. The melting pot in Ga-Matlala Maserumule with special reference to the Bapedi culture, language and dialects. MA thesis, UNISA.

Molamu, Louis (2003). Tsotsi-taal: a dictionary of the language of Sophiatown. Pretoria: University of South Africa Press.

Mous, M. 2011. Language Under Control. Paper presented as part of the Linguistics Spring Seminars, University of Cape Town 30th August.

Msimang, Christian Themba. 1987. Impact of Zulu on Tsotsitaal. South African Journal of Linguistics 7(3). 82-86.

Mulaudzi, P. Abraham & George Poulos (2001). The ‘Tsotsi’ language variety of Venda. South African Journal of African Languages 21(1):1-8.

Muller, Johan, Nico Cloete & Shireen Badat (eds.) (2001) Challenges of globalisation: South African debates with Manuel Castells. Juta: Cape Town.

Muysken, Pieter. 1997. Code-switching processes: Alternation, insertion, congruent lexicalization. In Martin Putz (ed.), Language choices: Conditions, constraints and consequences, 361-80. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Myers-Scotton, Carol. 1993. Duelling Languages. Oxford: Clarendon.

Nair, Rukmini Bhaya 2008 Language and youth culture In: Language in South Asia, edited by Braj B. Kachru, Yamuna Kachru, S. N. Sridhar

Ndlovu, R.S. 1963. “A short study of slang in Zulu and the role it plays in the development of the language.” MA thesis, University of Natal.

Newell, Sasha (2009) Enregistering modernity, bluffing criminality: how Nouchi speech reinvented (and fractured) the nation. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 19(2):157-184.

Newfield, Denise & Maungedzo, Robert (2006) Mobilising and Modalising Poetry in a Soweto Classroom. English Studies in Africa 49(1):71-93.

Ngwenya, Alfred. 1995. “The static and dynamic elements of Tsotsitaal with special reference to Zulu – a sociolinguistic research.” MA thesis, UNISA.

Nixon, Rob (1994). Homelands, Harlem and Hollywood: South African culture and the world beyond. London: Routledge.

Nkosi, Dolphina. 2008. “Language variation and change in a Soshanguve high school.” MA thesis, UNISA.

Ntshangase, Dumisani (1993). The social history of Iscamtho. Thesis (MA), University of the Witwatersrand.

Ntshangase, Dumisani. 1995. “Indaba yami i-straight: language and language practices in Soweto.” In Language and social history: studies in South African sociolinguistics, edited by Rajend Mesthrie, 291-297. Cape Town: David Philip.

Ogechi, Nathan (2005) On lexicalization in Sheng. Nordic Journal of African Studies. 14(3):334-355.

Ploog, Katja (2008) Subversion of language structure in heterogenous speech communities: the work of discourse and the part of contact. Journal of Language Contact, Thema series 2:251- 273.

Rampton, Ben. 1995. Crossing: language and ethnicity among adolescents. London: Longman.

Rampton, Ben. 2006. Language and late modernity. Interaction in an urban school. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rampton, Ben (2011) Style contrast, migration and social class. Journal of Pragmatics 43(5):1236-1250.

Richardson, Irvine (1961). Some observations on the Status of town Bemba in Northern Rhodesia. Journal of African Language Studies 2:25-36.

Romaine, Suzanne (1994). Language in society: an introduction to sociolinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rudwick, Stephanie (2005). Township language dynamics: isiZulu and isiTsotsi in Umlazi. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 23(3):305-317.

Rudwick, Stephanie 2008. Shifting norms of linguistic and cultural respect: hybrid sociolinguistic Zulu identities. Nordic Journal of African Studies, 17(2) 152-174.

Rudwick, Stephanie, Khathala Nkomo & Magcino Shange (2006) Ulimi Iwenkululeko: Township ‘women’s language of empowerment’ and homosexual linguistic identities. Agenda 20(67):57-65.

Satyo, Sizwe. 2001. “Kwaito-Speak: A Language Variety Created by the Youth for the Youth.” In Freedom and Discipline: Essays in Applied Linguistics from Southern Africa edited by Elaine Ridge, Sinfree Makoni and Stanley G. M. Ridge, 139-48. New Delhi: Bahri Publications.

Schröder, Anne (2007) Camfranglais – a language with several (sur)faces and important sociolinguistic functions. In: Anke Bartels & Dirk Wiemann (eds.) Global Fragments. (Dis)Orientation in the New World Order. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 281 - 298.

Schuring, Gerhard K. 1983. Flaaitaal. In George Claassen & Christo Van Rensburg (eds.), Taalverskeidenheid: ‘n blik op die spektrum van taalvariasie in Afrikaans, 116-133. Pretoria: Academica.

Schuring, Gerhard K. 1992. Salient features of koines: Pretoria Sotho, Spoken Koine Greek and Town Bemba. South African Journal of African Languages 12. 57-72 (supplement 1).

Sekere, Ntaoleng (2004). Sociolinguistic variation in spoken and written sesotho: a case study of speech varieties in Qwaqwa. Thesis (MA), UNISA.

Shishenge, Enock (2007). Eqinisweni Poetry Society Presents Ghetto Poetry. [Online] Accessed: [2011, 04/06]

Silva, Penny, Dore, Wendy, Mantzel, Dorothea, Muller, Colin & Wright, Madeleine (eds.). 1996. A Dictionary of South African English on Historical Principles. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Slabbert, Sarah and Carol Myers-Scotton. 1997. “The structure of Tsotsitaal and Iscamtho: Code switching and in-group identity in South African townships.” Linguistics 35. 317-342.

Slabbert, Sarah. 1994. A re-evaluation of the sociology of Tsotsitaal. South African Journal of Linguistics 12(1). 32-41.

Slabbert, Sarah & Finlayson, Rosalie. 2000. “I’m a cleva!”: the linguistic make-up of identity in a South African urban environment. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 144. 119-35.

Smith, Norval (2000) Symbiotic Mixed Languages: A Question of Terminology. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3(2):122-23.

Spitulnik, Deborah (1999) The language of the city: Town Bemba as urban hybridity. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 8(1):30-59.

Spyropoulos, Mary (1987) Sheng: some preliminary investigations into a recently emerged Nairobi street language. Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford 18(1):125-136.

Statistics South Africa (2007) Community Survey

Stone, Gerald L. 1991. An ethnographic and socio-semantic analysis of lexis among working-class Afrikaans-speaking coloured adolescent and young adult males in the Cape Peninsula, 1963-1990. Cape Town: University of Cape Town MA thesis.

Stone, Gerald L. 1995. The lexicon and sociolinguistic codes of the working-class Afrikaans-speaking Cape Peninsula coloured community. In Rajend Mesthrie (ed.), Language and Social History: Studies in South African Sociolinguisitcs, 277-290. Cape Town: David Philip.

Swadesh, Morris. 1952. Lexicostatistic dating of prehistoric ethnic contacts. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 96. 452–463.

Swann, Joan, Deumert, Ana., Lillis, Theresa & Mesthrie, Raj (2004). A dictionary of sociolinguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Thipa, Henry Mothebesoane. 1989. The difference between rural and urban. Xhosa varieties: A sociolinguistic study. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal PhD thesis.

Translate SA (2006) Traditional Township Slango. [Online] Accessed: [2011, 04/06]

Trudgill, Peter (1992). Introducing language and society. London: Penguin English.

Vakunta, Peter Wuteh (2011) Ivoirian Nouchi, cousin to Cameroonian Camfranglais. [Online] Accessed: [28 Sept 2011]

van Huyssteen & Botha (2008) A national overview of spatial trends and settlement characteristics

Van Onselen, Charles. 2001. New Babylon, New Nineveh: everyday life on the Witwatersrand 1886-1914. Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball.

Vertovec, Cohen et al; (2010) Super-diversity, South Africa. Max Planck Institute

Woolard, Kathryn A. 1998. Simultaneity and Bivalency as Strategies in Bilingualism. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 8(1). 3-29.

Zungu, P.J.N. 1995. Language variation in Zulu: A case study of contemporary codes and registers in the greater Durban area. Durban: University of Durban-Westville PhD thesis.

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